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Chief Scientific Officer

Dr. John S. Penn is an internationally recognized scientist with 34 years of experience in ophthalmic research. John has a long-standing interest in the mechanisms of retinal angiogenesis, which led him to develop the rat model of retinopathy of prematurity. Using this and other ocular disease models, Dr. Penn has partnered with national and international research organizations to advance drugs targeting retinal neovascularization, inflammation and neurodegeneration. Additionally, he has over 25 years of experience providing consultation for industry and academic researchers around the globe. With his years of expertise and knowledge of the field, Dr. Penn is able to advise decisions about optimal molecular targets and research strategies.


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The expert scientists working at VO-CRO are well-experienced using basic biochemistry and cell and molecular biology techniques, and using animal models of ocular disease. The VO-CRO team is dedicated to delivering high quality, reliable data on schedule and on budget.

Quality Assurance and Research Ethics

We employ the highest standards for quality assurance, including routine masked evaluation of intra- and inter-observer variability. Our practices are fully consistent with Federal rules for PHS-funded research and the DHHS Office of Research Integrity's "Introduction to the Responsible Conduct of Research" as they relate to experimental design, research conduct and data management.