Strokes in sickle cell anemia (SCA), particularly in children living in Africa, are associated with significant morbidity and an increased risk of premature death. In the US, primary stroke prevention in children with SCA involves screening for elevated transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) velocity coupled with regular blood transfusion therapy for those with elevated velocities. However, regular blood transfusion therapy is not feasible in Africa due to inadequate supply of safe blood and the reluctance of parents to accept regular blood transfusion therapy for their children.
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the most common genetic disease, affecting about 25 million people worldwide. Approximately 150,000 Nigerian children are born each year with sickle cell disease (SCD), making it the country with the largest burden of SCD in the world. Recent advancements in care for children with SCA have translated into improved survival of children in both high and low-resource settings. However, more complications of SCD are seen in those who survive to adulthood.