Lange T, Matthijs O, Jain NB, Schmitt J, Lützner J, Kopkow C. Reliability of specific physical examination tests for the diagnosis of shoulder pathologies: a systematic review and meta-analysis. British journal of sports medicine. 2016 Dec 19. PMID: 27993843 [PubMed]
Shoulder pain in the general population is common and to identify the aetiology of shoulder pain, history, motion and muscle testing, and physical examination tests are usually performed.