• Kawai VK, Murray KT, Stein CM, Cooper WO, Graham DJ, Hall K, Ray WA. Validation of a computer case definition for sudden cardiac death in opioid users. BMC research notes. 5. 473 p. PMID: 22938531 [PubMed]. PMCID: PMC3512474.

Abstract 

To facilitate the use of automated databases for studies of sudden cardiac death, we previously developed a computerized case definition that had a positive predictive value between 86% and 88%. However, the definition has not been specifically validated for prescription opioid users, for whom out-of-hospital overdose deaths may be difficult to distinguish from sudden cardiac death.