• Pham CD, Iqbal N, Bolden CB, Kuykendall RJ, Harrison LH, Farley MM, Schaffner W, Beldavs ZG, Chiller TM, Park BJ, Cleveland AA, Lockhart SR. Role of FKS Mutations in Candida glabrata: MIC values, echinocandin resistance, and multidrug resistance. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 2014 Aug;58(8). 4690-6. PMID: 24890592 [PubMed]. PMCID: PMC4136002.

Abstract 

Candida glabrata is the second leading cause of candidemia in U.S. hospitals. Current guidelines suggest that an echinocandin be used as the primary therapy for the treatment of C. glabrata disease due to the high rate of resistance to fluconazole. Recent case reports indicate that C. glabrata resistance to echinocandins may be increasing. We performed susceptibility testing on 1,380 isolates of C. glabrata collected between 2008 and 2013 from four U.S. cities, Atlanta, Baltimore, Knoxville, and Portland. Our analysis showed that 3.1%, 3.3%, and 3.6% of the isolates were resistant to anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin, respectively. We screened 1,032 of these isolates, including all 77 that had either a resistant or intermediate MIC value with respect to at least one echinocandin, for mutations in the hot spot regions of FKS1 and FKS2, the major mechanism of echinocandin resistance. Fifty-one isolates were identified with hot spot mutations, 16 in FKS1 and 35 in FKS2. All of the isolates with an FKS mutation except one were resistant to at least one echinocandin by susceptibility testing. Of the isolates resistant to at least one echinocandin, 36% were also resistant to fluconazole. Echinocandin resistance among U.S. C. glabrata isolates is a concern, especially in light of the fact that one-third of those isolates may be multidrug resistant. Further monitoring of U.S. C. glabrata isolates for echinocandin resistance is warranted.