• Ray WA, Murray KT, Kawai V, Graham DJ, Cooper WO, Hall K, Stein CM. Propoxyphene and the risk of out-of-hospital death. Pharmacoepidemiology and drug safety. 2013 Apr;22(4). 403-12. PMID: 23408551 [PubMed]. PMCID: PMC3694329. NIHMSID: NIHMS447305.


The opioid analgesic propoxyphene was withdrawn from the US market in 2010, motivated by concerns regarding fatality in overdose and adverse cardiac effects, including prolongation of the QT interval. These concerns were based on case reports, summary vital statistics, and surrogate endpoint studies.