• Fan RR, Howard LM, Griffin MR, Edwards KM, Zhu Y, Williams JV, Vidal JE, Klugman KP, Gil AI, Lanata CF, Grijalva CG. Nasopharyngeal Pneumococcal Density and Evolution of Acute Respiratory Illnesses in Young Children, Peru, 2009-2011. Emerging infectious diseases. 2016 Nov;22(11). 1996-1999. PMID: 27767919 [PubMed]. PMCID: PMC5088003.

Abstract 

We examined nasopharyngeal pneumococcal colonization density patterns surrounding acute respiratory illnesses (ARI) in young children in Peru. Pneumococcal densities were dynamic, gradually increasing leading up to an ARI, peaking during the ARI, and decreasing after the ARI. Rhinovirus co-infection was associated with higher pneumococcal densities.