- Vallabhaneni S, Cleveland AA, Farley MM, Harrison LH, Schaffner W, Beldavs ZG, Derado G, Pham CD, Lockhart SR, Smith RM. Epidemiology and Risk Factors for Echinocandin Nonsusceptible Candida glabrata Bloodstream Infections: Data From a Large Multisite Population-Based Candidemia Surveillance Program, 2008-2014. Open forum infectious diseases. 2015 Dec;2(4). ofv163. PMID: 26677456 [PubMed]. PMCID: PMC4677623.
Background. Echinocandins are first-line treatment for Candida glabrata candidemia. Echinocandin resistance is concerning due to limited remaining treatment options. We used data from a multisite, population-based surveillance program to describe the epidemiology and risk factors for echinocandin nonsusceptible (NS) C glabrata candidemia. Methods. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Emerging Infections Program conducts population-based laboratory surveillance for candidemia in 4 metropolitan areas (7.9 million persons; 80 hospitals). We identified C glabrata cases occurring during 2008-2014; medical records of cases were reviewed, and C glabrata isolates underwent broth microdilution antifungal susceptibility testing. We defined echinocandin-NS C glabrata (intermediate or resistant) based on 2012 Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute minimum inhibitory concentration breakpoints. Independent risk factors for NS C glabrata were determined by stepwise logistic regression. Results. Of 1385 C glabrata cases, 83 (6.0%) had NS isolates (19 intermediate and 64 resistant); the proportion of NS isolates rose from 4.2% in 2008 to 7.8% in 2014 (P < .001). The proportion of NS isolates at each hospital ranged from 0% to 25.8%; 3 large, academic hospitals accounted for almost half of all NS isolates. In multivariate analysis, prior echinocandin exposure (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 5.3; 95% CI, 2.6-1.2), previous candidemia episode (aOR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.1), hospitalization in the last 90 days (aOR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.0-3.5, and fluconazole resistance [aOR, 3.6; 95% CI, 2.0-6.4]) were significantly associated with NS C glabrata. Fifty-nine percent of NS C glabrata cases had no known prior echinocandin exposure. Conclusion. The proportion of NS C glabrata isolates rose significantly during 2008-2014, and NS C glabrata frequency differed across hospitals. In addition to acquired resistance resulting from prior drug exposure, occurrence of NS C glabrata without prior echinocandin exposure suggests possible transmission of resistant organisms.