• Wiese AD, Grijalva CG, Zhu Y, Mitchel EF, Griffin MR. Changes in Childhood Pneumonia Hospitalizations by Race and Sex Associated with Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines. Emerging infectious diseases. 2016 Jun;22(6). PMID: 27197048 [PubMed]. PMCID: PMC4880071.


Introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in the childhood immunization schedule was associated with decreases in all-cause pneumonia hospitalizations among black and white children in Tennessee, USA. Although racial disparities that existed before introduction of these vaccines have been substantially reduced, rates remain higher in boys than in girls among young children.