Variations in the calpain-10 gene have recently been reported to be associated with type 2 diabetes in a Mexican-American population. We typed three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the calpain-10 gene (SNPs 43, 56, and 63) to test for association between variation at these loci and type 2 diabetes and diabetes-related traits in 1,603 Finnish subjects: two samples of 526 (Finland-U.S. Investigation of NIDDM Genetics [FUSION] 1) and 255 (FUSION 2) index case subjects with type 2 diabetes, 185 and 414 unaffected spouses and offspring of FUSION 1 index case subjects or their affected siblings, and 223 elderly normal glucose-tolerant control subjects. We found no significant differences in allele, genotype, haplotype, or haplogenotype frequencies between index case subjects with diabetes and the elderly and spouse control populations (all P > 0.087). Although variation in these three SNPs was associated with variation in some type 2 diabetes-related traits within each of the case and control groups, no consistent pattern of the implicated variant or combination of variants was discerned. We conclude that variation in these three SNPs in the calpain-10 gene is unlikely to confer susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in this Finnish cohort.