Rothenberg ML, LaFleur B, Levy DE, Washington MK, Morgan-Meadows SL, Ramanathan RK, Berlin JD, Benson AB, Coffey RJ. Randomized phase II trial of the clinical and biological effects of two dose levels of gefitinib in patients with recurrent colorectal adenocarcinoma. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2005 Dec 20;23(23). 9265-74. PMID: 16361624 [PubMed]
The clinical objective of this trial was to evaluate gefitinib in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer that had progressed despite prior treatment. Serial tumor biopsies were performed when possible and analyzed for activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway. Serial serum samples were measured for amphiregulin and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFalpha).