Non-invasive imaging biomarkers of cellular proliferation hold great promise for quantifying response to personalized medicine in oncology. An emerging approach to assess tumor proliferation utilizes the positron emission tomography (PET) tracer 3'-deoxy-3'[(18)F]-fluorothymidine, [(18)F]-FLT. Though several studies have associated serial changes in [(18)F]-FLT-PET with elements of therapeutic response, the degree to which [(18)F]-FLT-PET quantitatively reflects proliferative index has been continuously debated for more that a decade. The goal of this study was to elucidate quantitative relationships between [(18)F]-FLT-PET and cellular metrics of proliferation in treatment naïve human cell line xenografts commonly employed in cancer research.