Mikhitarian K, Pollen M, Zhao Z, Shyr Y, Merchant NB, Parikh A, Revetta F, Washington MK, Vnencak-Jones C, Shi C. Epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway is frequently altered in ampullary carcinoma at protein and genetic levels. Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc. 2014 May;27(27). 665-74. PMID: 24186143 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC4007414 NIHMSID: NIHMS515755.
Our objective was to explore alteration of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway in ampullary carcinoma. Immunohistochemical studies were employed to evaluate expression of amphiregulin as well as expression and activation of EGFR. A lab-developed assay was used to identify mutations in the EGFR pathway genes, including KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, PTEN, and AKT1. A total of 52 ampullary carcinomas were identified, including 25 intestinal-type and 24 pancreatobiliary-type tumors, with the intestinal type being associated with a younger age at diagnosis (P=0.03) and a better prognosis (P