Effect of CYP3A5 and CYP3A4 genetic variants on fentanyl pharmacokinetics in a pediatric population.


Fentanyl is an anesthetic/analgesic commonly used in surgical and recovery settings. CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 encode enzymes, which metabolize fentanyl; genetic variants in these genes impact fentanyl pharmacokinetics in adults. Pharmacokinetic (PK) studies are difficult to replicate in children due to the burden of additional blood taken solely for research purposes. The aim of this study is to test the effect of CYP3A5 and CYP3A4 genetic variants on fentanyl PKs in children using opportunistically collected samples. Fentanyl concentrations were measured from remnant blood specimens and dosing data were extracted from electronic health records. Variant data defining CYP3A4*1G and CYP3A5*3 and *6 alleles were available from prior genotyping; alleles with no variant were defined as *1. The study cohort included 434 individuals (median age 9 months, 52% male subjects) and 1,937 fentanyl concentrations were available. A two-compartment model was selected as the base model, and the final covariate model included age, weight, and surgical severity score. Clearance was significantly associated with either CYP3A5*3 or CYP3A5*6 alleles, but not the CYP3A4*1G allele. A genotype of CYP3A5*1/*3 or CYP3A5*1/*6 (i.e., intermediate metabolizer status) was associated with a 0.84-fold (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.71-1.00) reduction in clearance vs. CYP3A5*1/*1 (i.e., normal metabolizer status). CYP3A5*3/*3, CYP3A5*3/*6, or CYP3A5*6/*6 (i.e., poor metabolizer status) was associated with a 0.76-fold (95% CI: 0.58-0.99) reduction in clearance. In the final model, expected clearance was 8.9 and 6.8 L/hour for a normal and poor metabolizer, respectively, with median population covariates (9 months old, 7.7 kg, low surgical severity).