Transforming growth factor β1 and extracellular matrix protease expression in the uterosacral ligaments of patients with and without pelvic organ prolapse.


This study was undertaken to evaluate the expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), key regulators of the extracellular matrix composition, in the uterosacral ligaments (USLs) of women with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) compared with controls.