A Preconception Paternal Fish Oil Diet Prevents Toxicant-Driven New Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Neonatal Mice.


New bronchopulmonary dysplasia is a developmental lung disease associated with placental dysfunction and impaired alveolarization. Risk factors for new BPD include prematurity, delayed postnatal growth, the dysregulation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and parental exposure to toxicants. Our group previously reported that a history of paternal toxicant exposure increased the risk of prematurity and low birth weight in offspring. A history of paternal toxicant exposure also increased the offspring's risk of new BPD and disease severity was increased in offspring who additionally received a supplemental formula diet, which has also been linked to poor lung development. Risk factors associated with new BPD are well-defined, but it is unclear whether the disease can be prevented. Herein, we assessed whether a paternal fish oil diet could attenuate the development of new BPD in the offspring of toxicant exposed mice, with and without neonatal formula feeding. We investigated the impact of a paternal fish oil diet preconception because we previously reported that this intervention reduces the risk of TCDD associated placental dysfunction, prematurity, and low birth weight. We found that a paternal fish oil diet significantly reduced the risk of new BPD in neonatal mice with a history of paternal toxicant exposure regardless of neonatal diet. Furthermore, our evidence suggests that the protective effects of a paternal fish oil diet are mediated in part by the modulation of small molecules involved in EMT.