Inpatient management of women with gestational and pregestational diabetes in pregnancy.


For women with type 1 diabetes (T1DM), type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and gestational diabetes (GDM), poor maternal glycemic control can significantly increase maternal and fetal risk for adverse outcomes. Outpatient medical and nutrition therapy is recommended for all women with diabetes in order to facilitate euglycemia during the antepartum period. Despite intensive outpatient therapy, women with diabetes often require inpatient diabetes management prior to delivery as maternal hyperglycemia can significantly increase neonatal risk of hypoglycemia. Consensus guidelines recommend maternal glucose range of 80-110 mg/dL in labor. The most optimal inpatient strategies for the prevention of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia proximate to delivery remain unclear and will depend upon factors such as maternal diabetes diagnosis, her baseline insulin resistance, duration and route of delivery etc. Low dose intravenous insulin and dextrose protocols are necessary to achieve optimal predelivery glycemic control for women with T1DM and T2DM. For most with GDM however, euglycemia can be maintained without intravenous insulin. Women treated with a subcutaneous insulin pump during the antepartum period represent a unique challenge to labor and delivery staff. Strategies for self-managed subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) use prior to delivery require intensive education and coordination of care with the labor team in order to maintain patient safety. Hospitalization is recommended for most women with diabetes prior to delivery and in the postpartum period despite appropriate outpatient glycemic control. Women with poorly controlled diabetes in any trimester have an increased baseline maternal and fetal risk for adverse outcomes. Common indications for antepartum hospitalization of these women include failed outpatient therapy and/or diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Inpatient management of DKA is a significant cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and remains a common indication for hospitalization of the pregnant woman with diabetes. Changes in maternal physiology increase insulin resistance and the risk for DKA. A systematic approach to its management will be reviewed.