Webster BW, Diamond MP, Osteen KG, Wentz AC. Endocrine profile of follicles containing oocytes with subsequent polyploid fertilization. Fertility and sterility. 1988 Nov;50(50). 727-31. PMID: 3053255 [PubMed]
In an attempt to identify oocytes at risk for polypronuclear fertilization, follicular fluids were obtained retrospectively that contained oocytes that fertilized normally and abnormally. Whenever possible, each patient served as her own control during the same stimulation cycle. Twenty-six of 169 patients had oocytes that became polypronuclear, and of those 26, 21 had oocytes that fertilized and cleaved normally. Follicular fluids were analyzed for estradiol, progesterone, androstenedione, transferrin, and insulin. Insulin levels were noted to be significantly elevated (P less than 0.05) in the polypronuclear group when compropose that insulin, a known growth factor for granulosa cells cultured in vitro, when present in excessive concentrations may predispose to polypronuclear fertilization.