The association of age at natural menopause with pre- to postmenopausal changes in left ventricular structure and function: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study.


The association between menopause and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) is controversial. We evaluated the relationships of estrogen deficiency (ovarian reproductive aging) assessed by age at natural menopause (ANM), chronological aging, and antecedent CVD risk factors (biological aging) with left ventricular (LV) structure and function among women transitioning from pre- to postmenopause.