Diamond MP, Maxson WS, Vaughn WK, Osteen KG, Wentz AC. Antiestrogenic effect of clomiphene citrate in a multiple follicular stimulation protocol. Journal of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer : IVF. 1986 Apr;3(3). 106-9. PMID: 3084690 [PubMed]
End-organ antiestrogenic effects of clomiphene citrate (CC) have been demonstrated in the female reproductive tract at the levels of the ovary, cervix, and endometrium. However, it has not been established whether this effect is manifested during concomitant human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) administration, as occurs in hMG/CC stimulations of multiple follicular development. To assess this question a review was made of serum estradiol (E2) and cervical mucus in 47 hMG and 56 hMG/CC stimulations on days -2, -1, 0, and +1 relative to the day of hCG administration. E2 levels (pg/ml) were significantly lower in the hMG as compared to the hMG/CC group. However, comparing the hMG and hMG/CC groups, cervical mucus scores were significantly higher in the former. Furthermore, an analysis of covariance demonstrated that the cervical mucus scores on each day were significantly lower in the hMG/CC group (P less than 0.001). Thus, in hMG/CC stimulations for in vitro fertilization (IVF), despite the concomitant administration of pharmacologic doses of hMG, CC exerts an antiestrogenic effect on at least one end organ, cervical mucus production. Potentially, this antiestrogenic effect in IVF stimulations would be exerted at other female reproductive tract sites including the endometrium; however, its clinical significance, if any, is unclear.