TENNESSEE POISON CENTER: Toll Free Poison Help hotline 1-800-222-1222
Toxic Plants - All Parts, unless otherwise specified.
Nontoxic Plants - Those with asterisk* may cause skin rash and itching
Acorns all Quercus species
Aloe Vera (leaf) aloe vera
Angels Trumpet Brugmansia suaveolens
Asparagus Fern (shoots, berries) Asparagus setaceus
Azalea all Rhododendron species
Bittersweet (leaf, fruit) Solanum dulcamara
Buckthorn Rhamnus Cathartica
Cactus (spine) Euphorbia species
Caladium all Caladium species
Castor Bean Ricinus communis
Chinese Lantern (leaf, unripe fruit) Physalis alkekengi
Chrysanthemum Chrysanthemum species
Creeping Charlie Glechoma hederacea
Daffodil (bulb) Narcissus pseudo-narcissus
Delphinium all Delphinium species
Dieffenbachia all Dieffenbachia species
English Ivy Hedera helix
Foxglove all Digitalis species
Gladiola (bulb) all Gladiola species
Holly all Ilex species
Horse Chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum
Hyacinth (bulb) all Hyacinth species
Iris all Iris species
Jerusalem Cherry (leaf, unripe fruit)
Lily of the Valley Convallaria majalis
Mistletoe Phoradendron flavescens
Narcissus (bulb) all Narcissus species
Nightshade all Solanum species
Oleander Nerium oleander
Peace Lily Spathiphyllum derelandii
Peony (roots, flowers, seeds) Paeonia officinalis
Philodendron all Philodendron species
Potato (sprouts, vine, unripe tubers, green skin)
Pothos Epipremanum aureum
Rhododendron all Rhododendron species
Rhubarb (leaf) Genus rheum
Syngonium Syngonium podophyllum
Trumpet Lily Zantedeschia aethiopica
Vinca Vine Vinca rosea
African Violet Saintpaulia ionantha
Air Plant Kalanchoe pinnata
Aluminum Plant Pilea codierei
Baby’s Breath Gypsophila elegans
Boston Fern Nephrolepis exalta
Coleus Coleus amboinicus
Corn Plant Dracaena fragrans
Dracaena Dracaena species
Echeveria all Echeveria species
False Aralia Dizygotheca elegantissima
*Ficus* all Ficus species
Gardenia Gardenia jasminoides
*Geranium* all Pelargonium species
Gloxinia all Gloxinia species
Hibiscus all Hibiscus species
Hollyhock Althaea rosea
Honey Plant Hoya carnosa
Impatiens all Impatiens species
Jade Plant Crassula argentea
Kalanchoe all Kalanchoe species
Mountian Ash Sorbus
Norfolk Pine Araucaria heterophylla
Palms Chamaedorea elegans
Peperomia all Peperomia species
Petunia Petunia hybrida
Piggyback Tolmiea menzieii
*Rose* Rosa species
*Rubbertree* Hevea brasiliensis
*Sedum* all Sedum species
Snapdragon all Antirrhinum species
Spider Plant Chlorophytum comosum
Swedish Ivy Plectranthus australis
Wandering Jew (leaf) all Tradescantia species
Yucca all Yucca species
Zebra Plant Zebrina pendula
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Toxicology Question of the Week
March 17, 2017
Is the shamrock toxic?
We boast of the green on our isle’s shores
Thanks to the plant that grows so grand.
It thrives in the mires, the bogs, and the mores.
The dear little Shamrock of Ireland.
As St. Patrick’s Day approaches, the world looks to celebrate the Irish culture with international festivals, parades, dancing, special foods, and the “wearing of the green”. One traditional symbol of St. Patrick’s Day is the Shamrock, which was chosen as Ireland’s national emblem based on legends of its use by St. Patrick. The Shamrock is a common name given to several different types of three-leafed clovers native to and plentiful in Ireland. Although most commonly associated with yellow clover or white clover, the exact type of plant that represents the “true” Shamrock remains a mystery. Several different varieties of clover exist in the United States. Some are native to the continent, while others have been naturalized to North America, originating in Europe and Asia. How harmful are the “Shamrocks” found in the USA? Should we be concerned for individuals who place sprigs of “Shamrocks” in their beverages and then drink a toast to this Irish holiday?
A brief overview of the potential toxic effects that could develop from the different genera of clover will best answer this question. Some of the common types of clover found in this country include:
- The Crimson or Italian Clover (Trifolium Incarnatum), which is considered non-toxic and symptoms from ingestion or dermal exposure are unexpected.
- The Purple Prairie Clover (Petalostemum Purpureum), which is also considered non-toxic and symptoms from ingestion or dermal exposure are unexpected.
- The Pink Clover (Dianthus Species), which contains an irritant compound that could result in eye, mouth, throat, skin, and gastrointestinal irritation upon contact or ingestion.
- The Stinking Clover (Cleome Serrulata), which contains an irritant, Glucocapparin, that could cause eye, mouth, throat, skin, and gastrointestinal irritation as well as an allergic reaction with contact or ingestion.
- The Red Clover (Trifolium Pratense), which can cause “slobbering sickness” in animals with bloating, stiffness, diarrhea, and emaciation, but human cases have not been seen.
- The Sweet Yellow Clover (Melilotus Officianalis) and the Sweet White Clover (Melilotus Alba), which contain dicumarol and have caused hypoprothrombinemia in animals. Large ingestions could lead to a warfarin effect with the risk of bleeding.
- The White or Dutch Clover (Trifolium Repens), which has moderate cyanogenic capabilities, but no cases of cyanide poisoning have been reported. However, large ingestions could possibly cause dyspnea, weakness, dizziness, and cyanosis.
Thus, based on this synopsis, severe toxicity from the ingestion of a small amount of clover residue that might be in a beverage is unlikely; however gastrointestinal upset could develop. Of course, if someone eats a large quantity of the more dangerous clover species, then serious side effects could arise. As always, please contact the poison control center for any questions or concerns that might surface during the St. Patrick’s Day festivities.
For each petal of the shamrock
This brings a wish your way
Good health, good luck, and happiness
For today and every day
-Mary Elizabeth Blake-
The Quote Garden
History, A & E Television Networks
MICROMEDEX Health Series by Truven Health Analytics
This Question prepared by: Cheri Wessels, CSPI, MBA
Question of the Week
March 8, 2016
Do you know the seeds that kill?
Local and national media outlets recently reported that a 22 year old died of complications after consuming an unknown amount of pong seeds purchased from Thailand via the internet.
The seeds are listed for decoration and planting purposes. However, the seeds are from the infamously known suicide tree .
WHAT IS IT?
The pong-pong tree, (bta-buta, nyan, othalanga, maram) also known as Cerbera odollam, grows along sandy coasts, river banks, and mangrove swamps of India and parts Southeast Asia.
Cerbera odollam is a tree belonging to the poisonous Apocynaceae family, which includes the common and yellow oleanders.
The kernels contain the active glycosides cerberin, cerberoside and odulin. The kernels contain a digoxin type cardiac glycoside toxin.
HOW DOES IT WORK?
Toxicology: Increased intracellular calcium leads to early afterdepolarization, cardiac irritability, and dysrhythmias. Increased vagal and decreased sympathetic tones lead to bradycardia and heart block. Inhibition of the Na-K ATPase pump causes hyperkalemia.
Cerbera odollam: sinus bradycardia, wandering pacemaker, second-degree SA block and nodal rhythm, nausea, retching and vomiting have occurred following the ingestion of half to one odollam kernel.
Reports of accidental or suicidal ingestions in the United States are very rare. The suicide tree is responsible for about 50% of plant poisoning cases and 10% of all poisoning cases in the state of Kerala, India. It is used for both suicide and homicides in that region. Also, it is sometimes eaten by children who mistake it for fruit.
This Question prepared by: Jeff Moore, RN, CSPI (Certified Specialist in Poison Information) Tennessee Poison Center
This is a great example of internet shopping. You can get whatever you want-you just cant be sure what it is. ds