Secondary malignancy after urologic reconstruction procedures: a multi-institutional case series.


Urinary diversion and reconstructive urologic procedures are most often performed by incorporating various intestinal segments into the urinary tract. Although the risk of malignancy, among other complications, is well recognized and occurs most frequently after ureterosigmoidostomies and cystoplasties, data on the histopathologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of these tumors are scant. This study aims to evaluate the clinicopathological features of secondary tumors arising after urologic reconstruction procedures. Eleven cases were identified among five collaborating academic institutions. The average age was 51.7 years, and the M:F ratio was 8:3. Surgical procedures included 7 ileal conduits, 2 gastrocystoplasties, 1 augmentation cystoplasty not otherwise specified (NOS), and 1 Indiana pouch. Median time from reconstruction to malignancy was 36 years. Malignancy included adenocarcinoma in 10 patients (intestinal type in 6, gastric in 2, signet-ring cell in 1, undetermined type after neoadjuvant treatment in 1) and squamous cell carcinoma in 1. By immunohistochemistry, the adenocarcinomas were CK7 (45%), CK20 (89%), CK903 (78%), CDX2 (89%), SATB2 (67%), and beta-catenin (100%) positive. GATA-3 was negative in all cases. Pathologic stage was T1 (30%), T2 (40%), T3 (20%), and T4 (10%). Regional lymph node and distant metastasis were present in 60% and 20%, respectively. Treatment included multimodality therapy in most patients. On follow-up (mean, 27.4 months), 2 patients were dead (1 of disease), 3 were alive with disease, 4 were alive without disease, and 2 were lost to follow-up. Secondary malignancy arising within urologic reconstruction is rare, most frequently has adenocarcinoma morphology, presents late, and behaves aggressively.