Ramirez AH, Shi Y, Schildcrout JS, Delaney JT, Xu H, Oetjens MT, Zuvich RL, Basford MA, Bowton E, Jiang M, Speltz P, Zink R, Cowan J, Pulley JM, Ritchie MD, Masys DR, Roden DM, Crawford DC, Denny JC. Predicting warfarin dosage in European-Americans and African-Americans using DNA samples linked to an electronic health record. Pharmacogenomics. 2012 Mar;13(13). 407-18. PMID: 22329724 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC3361510 NIHMSID: NIHMS364371.
Warfarin pharmacogenomic algorithms reduce dosing error, but perform poorly in non-European-Americans. Electronic health record (EHR) systems linked to biobanks may allow for pharmacogenomic analysis, but they have not yet been used for this purpose.