Gaps, Controversies, and Proposed Roadmap for Research in Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus.


Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus is considered common but remains underinvestigated. There are no uniformly accepted diagnostic criteria and therapeutic guidelines. We summarize the accumulated evidence regarding the definition, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, highlighting the many gaps and controversies, including diagnostic challenges, the frequent association with neurodegeneration and vascular disease, and the many unknowns regarding patient selection and outcome predictors. A roadmap to fill these gaps and solve the controversies around this condition is also proposed. More evidence is required with respect to diagnostic criteria, the value of ancillary testing, prospective population-based studies and novel trial designs. Furthermore, a need exists to develop new advanced options in shunt technology. © 2020 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.