Ko JY, Wolicki S, Barfield WD, Patrick SW, Broussard CS, Yonkers KA, Naimon R, Iskander J. CDC Grand Rounds: Public Health Strategies to Prevent Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome. MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report. 2017 Mar 10;66(66). 242-245. PMID: 28278146 [PubMed]
Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is a drug withdrawal syndrome that most commonly occurs in infants after in utero exposure to opioids, although other substances have also been associated with the syndrome (1). NAS usually appears within 48-72 hours of birth with a constellation of clinical signs, including central nervous system irritability (e.g., tremors), gastrointestinal dysfunction (e.g., feeding difficulties), and temperature instability (1) (Box 1). Opioid exposure during pregnancy might result from clinician-approved use of prescription opioids for pain relief; misuse or abuse of prescription opioids; illicit use (e.g., heroin); or medication-assisted treatment (MAT) of opioid use disorder (2) (Box 2).