Pettit AC, Mendes A, Jenkins C, Napravnik S, Freeman A, Shepherd BE, Dowdy D, Gill J, Rachlis A, Moore R, Sterling TR. Timing of Antiretroviral Treatment, Immunovirologic Status, and TB Risk: Implications for Testing and Treatment. Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999). 2016 Aug 15;72(72). 572-8. PMID: 27049511 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC4942351 NIHMSID: NIHMS773445.
Tuberculosis (TB) risk and mortality increase in the 6 months after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) initiation. This short-term risk may be a consequence of HAART initiation and immune reconstitution. Alternatively, it may be due to confounding by low CD4 counts and high HIV viral loads (VLs). We assessed the TB risk before and after HAART initiation while appropriately controlling for time-updated laboratory values and HAART exposure.