Aliyu MH, Wudil UJ, Ingles DJ, Shepherd BE, Gong W, Musa BM, Muhammad H, Sani MU, Abdu A, Nalado AM, Atanda A, Ahonkhai AA, Ikizler TA, Winkler CA, Kopp JB, Kimmel PL, Wester CW. Optimal management of HIV- positive adults at risk for kidney disease in Nigeria (Renal Risk Reduction "R3" Trial): protocol and study design. Trials. 2019 Dec 10;20(20). 341 p. PMID: 31182139 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC6558910
Individuals with two copies of the apolipoprotein-1 (APOL1) gene risk variants are at high risk (HR) for non-diabetic kidney disease. The presence of these risk variants is highest in West Africa, specifically in Nigeria. However, there is limited availability of dialysis and kidney transplantation in Nigeria, and most individuals will die soon after developing end-stage renal disease. Blocking the renin angiotensin aldosterone system with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) is a well-recognized strategy to slow renal disease progression in patients with diabetes mellitus with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and in patients with HIV-associated nephropathy. We propose to determine whether presence of the APOL1 HR genotype alters or predicts responsiveness to conventional therapy to treat or prevent CKD and if addition of an ACEi to standard combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces the risk of kidney complications among non-diabetic Nigerian adults.