Anemia is an increasingly recognized problem in sub-Saharan Africa. To determine the magnitude, severity, and associated factors of anemia among hospitalized children aged 6-59 months, HIV-infected and HIV-exposed uninfected children (a child born to a known HIV-infected mother) with a documented fever or history of fever within the prior 24 hours of hospital admission ( = 413) were included in this analysis. Of 413 children enrolled, 364 (88%) were anemic, with 53% classified as mild anemia (hemoglobin [Hb] 7-9.9 g/dL). The most common diagnoses associated with hospital admission included acute respiratory illness (51%), malnutrition (47%), gastroenteritis/diarrhea (25%), malaria (17%), and bacteremia (13%). A diagnosis of malaria was associated with a decrease in Hb by 1.54 g/dL (