Recurrent ischemic priapism is a common complication of sickle cell disease (SCD). We assessed the burden, characteristics, and types of priapism, including sexual dysfunction, in a cohort of men with and those without SCD, to test the hypothesis that sexual dysfunction is more prevalent in men with SCD. In Kano, Nigeria, we conducted a comparative cross-sectional survey that included 500 and 250 men 18 to 40 years of age, with and without SCD, respectively. The survey used the Priapism Questionnaire and the International Index of Erectile Function for sexual function assessment. All eligible participants approached for the study gave informed consent and were enrolled. Stuttering and major priapism were defined based on the average duration of priapism experiences that lasted ≤4 and >4 hours, respectively. The prevalence of priapism was significantly higher in men with SCD than in those without it (32.6% vs 2%; P