Fiske CT. Sterling TR, Blackman A, Maruri F, Rebeiro PF, Huaman M, Kator J, Scott Algood HM. Increased vitamin D receptor expression from macrophages after stimulation with M. tuberculosis among persons who have recovered from extrapulmonary tuberculosis. BMC infectious diseases. 2019 Apr 30;19(19). 366 p. PMID: 31039752 [PubMed]
Independent of HIV infection, extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) risk is increased in women, persons of black race or foreign birth, and by genetic variants in vitamin D receptor (VDR), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and toll-like receptor (TLR)-2; functional correlates are unclear. We evaluated macrophage expression of VDR, TLR2, cathelicidin, and TNF-α, and production of IL-1β in HIV-seronegative persons with previous EPTB, previous pulmonary TB, latent M. tuberculosis infection, and uninfected TB contacts. Persons with previous pleural TB were excluded due to enhanced immune responses at the site of disease.