Identification of persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated tuberculosis (TB) at increased risk for unfavourable TB outcomes would inform efforts to improve such outcomes. We sought to identify factors associated with a decreased risk of unfavourable TB treatment outcomes among people living with HIV-infection (PLHIV) in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), with a specific focus on directly observed therapy (DOT) compared with self-administered therapy (SAT) during the continuation phase of anti-TB therapy.