Antibiotic resistance on account of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) has become a major public health concern in developing countries. The presence of ESBL-PE is associated with increased morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. There is no active antimicrobial surveillance mechanism in Nigeria. The aim of this study is to determine a precise estimate of the burden of ESBL-PE in Nigeria. We employed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines and searched electronic databases for suitable studies. We derived pooled prevalence estimates using random effects models and assessed trends with meta-regression. We found 208 studies, with 38 satisfying our inclusion criteria. The overall pooled prevalence of ESBL-PE in Nigeria was 34.6% (95% CI 26.8 to 42.3%) and increased at a rate of 0.22% per year (p for trend=0.837). In summary, we found the prevalence of ESBL-PE in Nigeria to be high and recommend a robust national survey to provide a more detailed picture of the epidemiology of ESBL-PE in Nigeria.