Molecular mechanisms of NaCl cotransport.


Electroneutral Na-(K)-Cl cotransporters are present in most cell types, where they play an important role in both sodium-chloride absorption and secretion and cell volume regulation. Recent advances in the molecular identification of these cotransporters have provided a new level of insight into the mechanisms of sodium-chloride-coupled cotransport and its regulation. Here we review what is known about the Na-(K)-Cl cotransporters cloned to date and what can be deduced about their structure and function and summarize recent physiological investigations of the regulation of Na-(K)-Cl cotransport. These studies represent the beginning of an exciting and rapidly expanding field examining the molecular mechanisms of sodium-chloride-coupled cotransport.