Chung CP, Callahan ST, Cooper WO, Dupont WD, Murray KT, Franklin AD, Hall K, Dudley JA, Stein CM, Ray WA. Individual short-acting opioids and the risk of opioid-related adverse events in adolescents. Pharmacoepidemiology and drug safety. 2019 Nov;28(28). 1448-1456. PMID: 31418512 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC6956399 NIHMSID: NIHMS1049722.
Hydrocodone, codeine, oxycodone, and tramadol are frequently prescribed to adolescents for moderate pain related to minor trauma or dental, surgical, or medical procedures. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic differences between these opioids could affect their relative safety. We aimed to compare occurrence of opioid-related adverse events in adolescents without cancer or other severe conditions taking hydrocodone, codeine, oxycodone, and tramadol.