Individual short-acting opioids and the risk of opioid-related adverse events in adolescents.


Hydrocodone, codeine, oxycodone, and tramadol are frequently prescribed to adolescents for moderate pain related to minor trauma or dental, surgical, or medical procedures. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic differences between these opioids could affect their relative safety. We aimed to compare occurrence of opioid-related adverse events in adolescents without cancer or other severe conditions taking hydrocodone, codeine, oxycodone, and tramadol.