Therapeutic efficacy of CXCR3 blockade in an experimental model of severe sepsis.


ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: In our previous studies we demonstrated that CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) participates in the regulation of lymphocyte trafficking during cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis. In this study, we evaluated the effects of treatment with anti-CXCR3 immunoglobulin (IgG) and antibiotics on outcome during septic shock caused by CLP. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were treated with neutralizing IgG against CXCR3 plus Primaxin either 24 hours prior to, 2 hours after or 6 hours after CLP. Control mice received nonspecific IgG plus Primaxin in the same regimen. Survival, core body temperature, bacterial clearance and systemic cytokine production were evaluated. RESULTS: Our results show that treatment with anti-CXCR3 IgG plus Primaxin significantly improved survival when administered 24 hours prior to CLP (50% vs. 10%), 2 hours after CLP (55% vs. 10%) or 6 hours after CLP (55% vs. 25%) compared with mice receiving nonspecific IgG plus Primaxin. Treatment with anti-CXCR3 plus Primaxin 24 hours prior to CLP attenuated hypothermia and IL-6 and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) production but did not alter bacterial clearance. Treatment with anti-CXCR3 IgG and Primaxin 2 hours after CLP did not improve bacterial clearance and systemic cytokine production compared with mice treated with IgG and Primaxin, whereas 6 hours after CLP the bacterial clearance and IL-6 and MIP-2 concentrations, both in plasma and peritoneal lavage fluid, were significantly improved in mice receiving anti-CXCR3 IgG and Primaxin compared with mice that only received nonspecific IgG and Primaxin. CONCLUSION: The results from this study indicate that neutralization of CXCR3 prior to, 2 hours after or 6 hours after the initiation of CLP-induced septic shock improves survival and attenuates CLP-induced inflammation and physiologic dysfunction.