Hernandez A, Zhou J, Bohannon JK, McBride MA, Gibson-Corley KN, Patil NK, Owen AM, Burelbach KR, Sherwood ER. INTRAPULMONARY TREATMENT WITH A NOVEL TLR4 AGONIST CONFERS PROTECTION AGAINST KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIA. Shock (Augusta, Ga.). 2022 Oct 1;58(58). 295-303. PMID: 36018281 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC9647733 NIHMSID: NIHMS1845670.
Objectives: Nosocomial pneumonia is a common complication in critically ill patients. The goal of this study was to examine the efficacy of the Toll-like receptor 4 agonist 3-deacyl phosphorylated hexacyl disaccharide (3D PHAD), in a clinically relevant murine model of pneumonia, and assess the cellular mechanisms that mediate the protective response. Design: Mice received intrapulmonary 3D PHAD (20 μg) or vehicle for 2 consecutive days before challenge with intrapulmonary Klebsiella pneumoniae (2.3 × 10 3 colony-forming units). Mice were followed for 14-day survival, pulmonary K. pneumoniae burden, lung leukocyte profile, leukocyte phagocytic capacity, and cytokine production. Pneumonia severity and leukocyte recruitment were further assessed by histological evaluation. Setting: Research laboratory. Subjects: Wild-type, male C57BL/6 J mice. Interventions: Intrapulmonary treatment with 20 μg 3D PHAD for 2 consecutive days. Measurements and main results: Intrapulmonary treatment with 3D PHAD decreased lung K. pneumoniae colony-forming units and pneumonia severity with an associated improvement in survival compared with mice treated with vehicle. The numbers of neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages in the lungs of 3D PHAD-treated mice were higher than those in vehicle-treated mice before infection but were not significantly different from vehicle-treated mice at 48 h after K. pneumoniae challenge. Lung innate leukocytes from 3D PHAD-treated mice had increased phagocytic capacity. Treatment with 3D PHAD alone increased cytokines in the lungs but decreased cytokines in plasma during K. pneumoniae pneumonia as compared with control. Conclusions: Intrapulmonary treatment with 3D PHAD augments innate immunity in the lung and facilitates resistance to K. pneumoniae pneumonia.