Guo Y, Luan L, Patil NK, Wang J, Bohannon JK, Rabacal W, Fensterheim BA, Hernandez A, Sherwood ER. IL-15 Enables Septic Shock by Maintaining NK Cell Integrity and Function. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). 2017 Feb 1;198(198). 1320-1333. PMID: 28031340 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC5263185 NIHMSID: NIHMS835413.
Interleukin 15 is essential for the development and differentiation of NK and memory CD8(+) (mCD8(+)) T cells. Our laboratory previously showed that NK and CD8(+) T lymphocytes facilitate the pathobiology of septic shock. However, factors that regulate NK and CD8(+) T lymphocyte functions during sepsis are not well characterized. We hypothesized that IL-15 promotes the pathogenesis of sepsis by maintaining NK and mCD8(+) T cell integrity. To test our hypothesis, the pathogenesis of sepsis was assessed in IL-15-deficient (IL-15 knockout, KO) mice. IL-15 KO mice showed improved survival, attenuated hypothermia, and less proinflammatory cytokine production during septic shock caused by cecal ligation and puncture or endotoxin-induced shock. Treatment with IL-15 superagonist (IL-15 SA, IL-15/IL-15Rα complex) regenerated NK and mCD8(+) T cells and re-established mortality of IL-15 KO mice during septic shock. Preventing NK cell regeneration attenuated the restoration of mortality caused by IL-15 SA. If given immediately prior to septic challenge, IL-15-neutralizing IgG M96 failed to protect against septic shock. However, M96 caused NK cell depletion if given 4 d prior to septic challenge and conferred protection. IL-15 SA treatment amplified endotoxin shock, which was prevented by NK cell or IFN-γ depletion. IL-15 SA treatment also exacerbated septic shock caused by cecal ligation and puncture when given after the onset of sepsis. In conclusion, endogenous IL-15 does not directly augment the pathogenesis of sepsis but enables the development of septic shock by maintaining NK cell numbers and integrity. Exogenous IL-15 exacerbates the severity of sepsis by activating NK cells and facilitating IFN-γ production.