Overall rates of noncompletion of treatment (NCT) for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in the PREVENT TB trial were 18% for 3 months of directly observed once-weekly rifapentine (maximum dose, 900 mg) plus isoniazid (maximum dose, 900 mg) (3HP-DOT) and 31% for 9 months of daily self-administered isoniazid (maximum dose, 300 mg; 9H-SAT). NCT for LTBI reduces its effectiveness. The study objective was to assess factors associated with NCT for LTBI among adult participants enrolled at US and Canadian sites of the PREVENT TB trial.