Kayamba V, Heimburger DC, Morgan DR, Atadzhanov M, Kelly P. Exposure to biomass smoke as a risk factor for oesophageal and gastric cancer in low-income populations: A systematic review. Malawi medical journal : the journal of Medical Association of Malawi. 2017 Jun;29(29). 212-217. PMID: 28955435 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC5610298
Upper gastrointestinal cancers contribute significantly to cancer-related morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, but they continue to receive limited attention. The high incidence in young adults remains unexplained, and the risk factors have not been fully described.