Opioid use disorder (OUD) is on the rise among women of reproductive age in the United States, contributing to a marked increase in the incidence of adverse consequences on maternal and child health (MCH). There is a dearth of literature on the biopsychosocial determinants of OUD in MCH populations and their role in the current opioid epidemic. The aim of this study is to examine the epidemiology of OUD in the United States and develop a biopsychosocial research model of OUD among women of reproductive age.