Wudil UJ, Aliyu MH, Prigmore HL, Ingles DJ, Ahonkhai AA, Musa BM, Muhammad H, Sani MU, Nalado AM, Abdu A, Abdussalam K, Shepherd BE, Dankishiya FS, Burgner AM, Ikizler TA, Wyatt CM, Kopp JB, Kimmel PL, Winkler CA, Wester CW. Apolipoprotein-1 risk variants and associated kidney phenotypes in an adult HIV cohort in Nigeria. Kidney international. 2021 Apr 24. PMID: 33901548 [PubMed]
HIV-positive adults are at risk for various kidney diseases, and apolipoprotein 1 (APOL1) high-risk genotypes increase this risk. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and ethnic distribution of APOL1 risk genotypes among a cohort of HIV-positive Nigerian adults and explore the relationship between APOL1 risk variant status with albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). We conducted a cross-sectional study among 2 458 persons living with HIV who attended an HIV clinic in northern Nigeria and had received antiretroviral therapy for a minimum of six months. We collected two urine samples four-eight weeks apart to measure albumin excretion, and blood samples to measure eGFR and determine APOL1 genotype. The frequency of APOL1 high-risk genotype was 6.2%, which varied by ethnic group: Hausa/Fulani (2.1%), Igbo (49.1%), and Yoruba (14.5%). The prevalence of microalbuminuria (urine/albumin creatinine ratio 30- 300 mg/g) was 37%, and prevalence of macroalbuminuria (urine/albumin creatinine ratio over 300 mg/g) was 3%. The odds of microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria were higher for participants with the APOL1 high-risk genotype compared to those carrying the low-risk genotype ([adjusted odds ratio 1.97, 95% confidence interval 1.37-2.82] and [3.96, 1.95-8.02] respectively). APOL1 high-risk genotype participants were at higher risk of having both an eGFR under 60 ml/min/1.73m and urine/albumin creatinine ratio over 300 mg/g (5.56, 1.57-19.69). Thus, we found a high proportion of HIV-positive, antiretroviral therapy-experienced, and largely virologically suppressed adults had microalbuminuria. Hence, although the high-risk APOL1 genotype was less prevalent than expected, it was strongly associated with some level of albuminuria.