Update on Cardioprotective Strategies for STEMI: Focus on Supersaturated Oxygen Delivery.


Despite the fact that door-to-balloon times have been greatly reduced, the rates of death and the incidence of heart failure in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (MI) have plateaued. There is still an unmet need to further reduce MI size in the reperfusion era. Most adjunctive therapies to enhance myocardial salvage have failed, but some have shown promise. Currently, the only adjunctive therapy in a pivotal trial that has demonstrated reductions in infarct size is localized delivery of supersaturated oxygen (SSO) therapy. This review provides background on prior infarct size reduction efforts. The authors describe the preclinical data that shows the effectiveness of SSO in reducing MI size, improving regional myocardial blood flow and cardiac function, and reducing adverse left ventricular remodeling-presumably by reducing patchy areas of residual ischemia within the reperfused risk zone. Potential mechanisms by which SSO is beneficial are described, including the delivery of high levels of dissolved oxygen through plasma to ischemic, but viable, vascular and myocardial cells, thus allowing their survival and function. The authors then describe the SSO clinical trials, demonstrating that in patients with anterior ST-segment elevation MI, SSO therapy safely and effectively reduces infarct size, improves cardiac function, and reduces adverse left ventricular remodeling.