Staphylococcus aureus is one of the earliest bacterial pathogens to colonize the lungs of children with cystic fibrosis and is an important contributor to pulmonary exacerbations. The adaptive host response to S. aureus in cystic fibrosis remains inadequately defined and has important implications for pathogenesis and potential interventions. The objectives of this study were to determine the functional antibody response to select staphylococcal exotoxins (LukAB, alpha-hemolysin, and PVL) in children with cystic fibrosis and to evaluate the relationship of this response with pulmonary exacerbations.