asymptomatically colonizes approximately 30-50% of the population and is a leading cause of bacteremia, bone/joint infections, and skin infections in the US. has become a major public health threat due to antibiotic resistance and an increasing number of failed vaccine attempts. To develop new anti-staphylococcal preventive therapies, it will take a more thorough understanding of the current role virulence factors play in contributing to human disease. This review focuses on the clinical association of individual toxins with infection as well as attempted treatment options. Further understanding of these associations will increase understanding of toxins and their importance to pathogenesis.