Dunbar MS, Shiffman S, Kirchner TR, Tindle HA, Scholl SM. Nicotine dependence, "background" and cue-induced craving and smoking in the laboratory. Drug and alcohol dependence. 2014 Sep 1;142(142). 197-203. Nicotine dependence, "background" and cue-induced craving and smoking in the laboratory PMID: 25028339 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC4140567 NIHMSID: NIHMS613408.
Nicotine dependence has been associated with higher "background" craving and smoking, independent of situational cues. Due in part to conceptual and methodological differences across past studies, the relationship between dependence and cue-reactivity (CR; e.g., cue-induced craving and smoking) remains unclear.