David SP, Wang A, Kapphahn K, Hedlin H, Desai M, Henderson M, Yang L, Walsh KM, Schwartz AG, Wiencke JK, Spitz MR, Wenzlaff AS, Wrensch MR, Eaton CB, Furberg H, Mark Brown W, Goldstein BA, Assimes T, Tang H, Kooperberg CL, Quesenberry CP, Tindle H, Patel MI, Amos CI, Bergen AW, Swan GE, Stefanick ML. Gene by Environment Investigation of Incident Lung Cancer Risk in African-Americans. EBioMedicine. 2016 Feb;4(4). 153-61. PMID: 26981579 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC4776066
Genome-wide association studies have identified polymorphisms linked to both smoking exposure and risk of lung cancer. The degree to which lung cancer risk is driven by increased smoking, genetics, or gene-environment interactions is not well understood.