Dikalov S, Itani H, Richmond B, Vergeade A, Rahman SMJ, Boutaud O, Blackwell T, Massion PP, Harrison DG, Dikalova A. Tobacco smoking induces cardiovascular mitochondrial oxidative stress, promotes endothelial dysfunction, and enhances hypertension. American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology. 2019 Dec 1;316(316). H639-H646. PMID: 30608177 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC6459311
Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and hypertension. It is associated with the oxidative stress and induces metabolic reprogramming, altering mitochondrial function. We hypothesized that cigarette smoke induces cardiovascular mitochondrial oxidative stress, which contributes to endothelial dysfunction and hypertension. To test this hypothesis, we studied whether the scavenging of mitochondrial HO in transgenic mice expressing mitochondria-targeted catalase (mCAT) attenuates the development of cigarette smoke/angiotensin II-induced mitochondrial oxidative stress and hypertension compared with wild-type mice. Two weeks of exposure of wild-type mice with cigarette smoke increased systolic blood pressure by 17 mmHg, which was similar to the effect of a subpresssor dose of angiotensin II (0.2 mg·kg·day), leading to a moderate increase to the prehypertensive level. Cigarette smoke exposure and a low dose of angiotensin II cooperatively induced severe hypertension in wild-type mice, but the scavenging of mitochondrial HO in mCAT mice completely prevented the development of hypertension. Cigarette smoke and angiotensin II cooperatively induced oxidation of cardiolipin (a specific biomarker of mitochondrial oxidative stress) in wild-type mice, which was abolished in mCAT mice. Cigarette smoke and angiotensin II impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation and induced superoxide overproduction, which was diminished in mCAT mice. To mimic the tobacco smoke exposure, we used cigarette smoke condensate, which induced mitochondrial superoxide overproduction and reduced endothelial nitric oxide (a hallmark of endothelial dysfunction in hypertension). Western blot experiments indicated that tobacco smoke and angiotensin II reduce the mitochondrial deacetylase sirtuin-3 level and cause hyperacetylation of a key mitochondrial antioxidant, SOD2, which promotes mitochondrial oxidative stress. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This work demonstrates tobacco smoking-induced mitochondrial oxidative stress, which contributes to endothelial dysfunction and development of hypertension. We suggest that the targeting of mitochondrial oxidative stress can be beneficial for treatment of pathological conditions associated with tobacco smoking, such as endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases.