Reducing uncertainty in cancer risk estimation for patients with indeterminate pulmonary nodules using an integrated deep learning model.


Patients with indeterminate pulmonary nodules (IPN) with an intermediate to a high probability of lung cancer generally undergo invasive diagnostic procedures. Chest computed tomography image and clinical data have been in estimating the pretest probability of lung cancer. In this study, we apply a deep learning network to integrate multi-modal data from CT images and clinical data (including blood-based biomarkers) to improve lung cancer diagnosis. Our goal is to reduce uncertainty and to avoid morbidity, mortality, over- and undertreatment of patients with IPNs.