Yoshihara S, Chan B, Yamawaki I, Geppetti P, Ricciardolo FL, Massion PP, Nadel JA. Plasma extravasation in the rat trachea induced by cold air is mediated by tachykinin release from sensory nerves. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 1995 Apr;151(151). 1011-7. PMID: 7697224 [PubMed]
Cold air was delivered to anesthetized, artificially ventilated, pathogen-free F344 rats via a tracheal cannula. Inhalation of cold air increased Evans blue dye extravasation in the trachea in a time-dependent (1 to 10 min) manner. Plasma extravasation increased after 3 min exposure to cold air and reached a maximum after 10 min exposure. The neutral endopeptidase inhibitor, phosphoramidon (2.5 mg/kg, intravenously), increased by 84% the plasma extravasation induced by inhalation of cold air for 1 min. The plasma extravasation evoked by 5 min exposure to cold air was abolished by the NK1 tachykinin receptor antagonist, CP-99,994 (4 mg/kg, intravenously); was reduced 30% by the B2 bradykinin receptor antagonist, HOE140 (0.1 mumol/kg, intravenously); and was not affected by H1 (pyrilamine, 10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) or H2 (cimetidine, 10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) histamine receptor antagonists or the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (5 mg/kg, intravenously). In rats infected with Sendai virus, plasma extravasation evoked by inhalation of cold air was greater than in pathogen-free rats. Pretreatment with CP-99,994 (4 mg/kg, intravenously) inhibited completely the plasma extravasation induced by cold air in virus-infected rats. These findings indicate that cold air increases plasma extravasation in the rat trachea by a neurogenic mechanism that involves the release of tachykinins from sensory nerves. Kinin release may also play a role in this neurogenic inflammatory response.