Improving lung cancer diagnosis with cancer, fungal, and imaging biomarkers.


Indeterminate pulmonary nodules (IPNs) represent a significant diagnostic burden in health care. We aimed to compare a combination clinical prediction model (Mayo Clinic model), fungal (histoplasmosis serology), imaging (computed tomography [CT] radiomics), and cancer (high-sensitivity cytokeratin fraction 21; hsCYFRA 21-1) biomarker approach to a validated prediction model in diagnosing lung cancer.